FULL SERVICE OPERATING LEASE
The lessor gives the lessee the exclusive right to possess and use the leased asset for a specific period and under specified conditions, but retains ownership of the car. The full amount of lease payments is charged as an expense on the lessee’s income statement but no associated asset or liability (other than the liability of the accrued lease payment or rent) appears on the lessee’s balance sheet.
The lessor (Everest) is responsible for the costs associated with operating the rail cars. These costs typically include normal car maintenance, insurance, and taxes. However, expenses caused by the product shipped or extraordinary maintenance items caused by the lessee are still the obligation of the lessee.
A per-diem lease is based on the car hire accounting conventions observed by the North American Rail System. Under this system, railroads reimburse one another for time and miles while another railroad’s car is on its line. The car typically earns the majority of its “lease payment” while the car is “off-line” on railroads other than the leasing railroad.
Leases vary greatly depending on the situation, providing varying rates on- and off-line. They also provide varying levels of assurances for the leasing railroad, from no assurance (other than the lessor’s right to “pull” the cars and redeploy them elsewhere), to a fully guaranteed revenue stream. This lease structure is normally set up between a leasing company and a railroad that has a need for a specific car type.
A capital lease is sometimes referred to as a conditional sales contract. The advantage to the lessee or buyer is the fact that the product can be paid for over time, without the need for taking out a loan to handle the transaction. Along with making it possible for the lessee to acquire and begin to enjoy the product immediately, a capital lease also usually includes some stipulations for terminating the agreement early. Those clauses help to provide the lessor with a reasonable level of protection, in the event that the lessee has a change of heart after the agreement has been in place for only a short time.
Like many leases, the capital lease is entered into with expectations on the part of everyone concerned. The lessee anticipates being able to enjoy the product, pay a fixed number of payments on an agreed upon schedule, and have the option of executing a final purchase for the product once the payments have been settled in full. The lessor benefits from the capital lease by placing a product with a customer, receiving a regular fee for that product, and having a reasonable expectation of ultimately selling the product.
A sales-leaseback is a transaction wherein the owner of a property sells that property and then leases it back from the buyer. The purpose of the leaseback is to free up the original owner’s capital while allowing the owner to retain possession and use of the property.
A sale-leaseback can be beneficial for the buyer and seller alike. The seller attains a lump sum of cash quickly and the buyer acquires a lower than market value purchase price, along with a long-term lease attached to the asset.
NET OPERATING LEASE
A net operating lease, sometimes called a triple net lease, is an agreement where the lessee agrees to pay a net lease fee for the right to use the rail equipment for an extended period of time. In addition to the monthly lease fee, the lessee agrees to pay all taxes, insurance, and costs associated with repairs, replacements and maintenance of the property.
The advantage to a net operating lease is a discounted monthly lease rate.